The reintroduction of hemp in the USA: a content analysis of state and tribal hemp production plans

Amanda Falkner, Jane Kolodinsky, Tyler Mark, William Snell, Rebecca Hill, Amelia Luke, Jonathan Shepherd, Hannah Lacasse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: The reintroduction of Cannabis sativa L. in the form of hemp (< 0.3% THC by dry weight) into the US agricultural sector has been complex and remains confounded by its association with cannabis (> 0.3% THC by dry weight). This has been further exacerbated by inconsistent hemp regulations in the US since the 2014 Farm Bill’s reintroduction. Methods: A content analysis was performed to analyze the terms and definitions presented by state and tribal hemp production plans, the USDA Hemp producer license, and the 2014 state pilot plans. A total of 69 hemp production plans were analyzed. Results: Results suggest significant discrepancies between hemp production plans, which have been exacerbated by extending the 2014 Farm Bill language into the 2018 Farm Bill timeframe. Conclusions: Findings from this study point to areas in need of uniformity and consistency as the regulatory framework is modified and provides a starting point for change for federal policymakers. The results may also be useful to companies attempting to market products across state boundaries. Suggestions for how to mitigate these inconsistencies are provided based on the content analysis findings.

Original languageEnglish
Article number17
JournalJournal of Cannabis Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s).


  • Cannabis
  • Cannabis plant
  • Content analysis
  • Farm Bill
  • Hemp
  • Regulation
  • United States Department of Agriculture

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Pharmacology
  • Complementary and alternative medicine
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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