The renin-angiotensin system: A target of and contributor to dyslipidemias, altered glucose homeostasis, and hypertension of the metabolic syndrome

Kelly Putnam, Robin Shoemaker, Frederique Yiannikouris, Lisa A. Cassis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

206 Scopus citations

Abstract

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important therapeutic target in the treatment of hypertension. Obesity has emerged as a primary contributor to essential hypertension in the United States and clusters with other metabolic disorders (hyperglycemia, hypertension, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol) defined within the metabolic syndrome. In addition to hypertension, RAS blockade may also serve as an effective treatment strategy to control impaired glucose and insulin tolerance and dyslipidemias in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and/or specific cholesterol metabolites have been demonstrated to activate components required for the synthesis [angiotensinogen, renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)], degradation (ACE2), or responsiveness (angiotensin II type 1 receptors, Mas receptors) to angiotensin peptides in cell types (e.g., pancreatic islet cells, adipocytes, macrophages) that mediate specific disorders of the metabolic syndrome. An activated local RAS in these cell types may contribute to dysregulated function by promoting oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation. This review will discuss data demonstrating the regulation of components of the RAS by cholesterol and its metabolites, glucose, and/or insulin in cell types implicated in disorders of the metabolic syndrome. In addition, we discuss data supporting a role for an activated local RAS in dyslipidemias and glucose intolerance/insulin resistance and the development of hypertension in the metabolic syndrome. Identification of an activated RAS as a common thread contributing to several disorders of the metabolic syndrome makes the use of angiotensin receptor blockers and ACE inhibitors an intriguing and novel option for multisymptom treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)H1219-H1230
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Volume302
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2012

Keywords

  • Angiotensinogen
  • Glucose
  • Hypercholesterolemia
  • Insulin
  • Obesity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

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