The T-cell-specific adapter protein family: TSAd, ALX, and SH2D4A/SH2D4B

Philip E. Lapinski, Jennifer A. Oliver, Jennifer N. Bodie, Francesc Marti, Philip D. King

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Summary: Adapter proteins play key roles in intracellular signal transduction through complex formation with catalytically active signaling molecules. In T lymphocytes, the role of several different types of adapter proteins in T-cell antigen receptor signal transduction is well established. An exception to this is the family of T-cell-specific adapter (TSAd) proteins comprising of TSAd, adapter protein of unknown function (ALX), SH2D4A, and SH2D4B. Only recently has the function of these adapters in T-cell signal transduction been explored. Here, we discuss advances in our understanding of the role of this family of adapter proteins in T cells. Their function as regulators of signal transduction in other cell types is also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)240-254
Number of pages15
JournalImmunological Reviews
Issue number1
StatePublished - Nov 2009


  • Adapter proteins
  • Autoimmunity
  • Knockout mice
  • Protein tyrosine kinases
  • Signal transduction
  • T lymphocytes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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