The Triple-E Model: Advancing Equestrian Research with Perspectives from One Health

Michaela M. Keener, Kimberly I. Tumlin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Equestrian sport has various welfare issues and educational needs. To address these complex interactions, we propose an integrated approach called the Triple-E Model, which focuses on the equine, equestrian, and environmental triad. A literature review of existing models suggests that complexities of these interactions are overlooked, despite the significant impact of equine industries on economics, healthcare, and animal welfare. This paper discusses current models and theories used to evaluate equine–equestrian–environmental interactions and introduces the Triple-E Model to foster multidisciplinary collaboration. Unlike the One Health triad, which focuses on disease emergence, transmission, and zoonosis, the Triple-E Model extends to non-infectious research, such as musculoskeletal injury. It promotes collaborative care and rehabilitation within the equestrian community by engaging multidisciplinary, multi-setting, and multi-sectoral teams. Given the nature of human–animal interaction and welfare considerations, this model fills the gap in understanding human–horse interactions. The paper highlights the limitations of existing models and explains how the Triple-E Model guides and encourages holistic team collaboration in the equestrian community.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2642
Issue number16
StatePublished - Aug 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • environmental factors
  • horse
  • horseback riding
  • human–horse interaction
  • research model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • General Veterinary


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