Accurate thermodynamic properties for species found in carbon–phenolic gas mixtures are essential in predicting material response and heating of carbon–phenolic heat shields of planetary entry vehicles. A review of available thermodynamic data for species found in mixtures of carbon–phenolic pyrolysis and ablation gases and atmospheres rich with C, H, O, and N such as those of Earth, Mars, Titan, and Venus, is performed. Over 1200 unique chemical species are identified from four widely used thermodynamic databases and a systematic procedure is described for combining these data into a comprehensive model. The detailed dataset is then compared with the Chemical Equilibrium with Applications thermodynamic database developed by NASA in order to quantify the differences in equilibrium thermodynamic properties obtained with the two databases. In addition, a consistent reduction methodology using the mixture thermodynamic properties as an objective function is developed to generate reduced species sets for a variety of temperature, pressure, and elemental composition spaces. It is found that 32 and 23 species are required to model carbon–phenolic pyrolysis gases mixed with air and CO2, respectively, to maintain a maximum error in thermodynamic quantities below 10%.
|Number of pages||16|
|Journal||Aerospace Science and Technology|
|State||Published - Jul 1 2017|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
J.B.S., B.B.F., and T.E.M. were funded by the European Research Council Starting Grant #259354: “Multiphysics models and simulations for reacting and plasma flows applied to the space exploration program.” A.M. was supported through NASA Award NNX13AN04A. J.L. was funded by the NASA Space Technology Research Grants Program, grant NNX12AG47A. J.R. and G.B. were funded by the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research, grant FA9550-12-1-0472. Finally, the authors wish to thank Prof. Burcat for his timely and helpful answers to our questions.
© 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS
- Re-entry vehicles
- Thermal protection materials
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Aerospace Engineering