Thermodynamic properties of carbon–phenolic gas mixtures

James Scoggins, Jason Rabinovitch, Benjamin Barros-Fernandez, Alexandre Martin, Jean Lachaud, Richard Jaffe, Nagi Mansour, Guillaume Blanquart, Thierry Magin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations

Abstract

Accurate thermodynamic properties for species found in carbon–phenolic gas mixtures are essential in predicting material response and heating of carbon–phenolic heat shields of planetary entry vehicles. A review of available thermodynamic data for species found in mixtures of carbon–phenolic pyrolysis and ablation gases and atmospheres rich with C, H, O, and N such as those of Earth, Mars, Titan, and Venus, is performed. Over 1200 unique chemical species are identified from four widely used thermodynamic databases and a systematic procedure is described for combining these data into a comprehensive model. The detailed dataset is then compared with the Chemical Equilibrium with Applications thermodynamic database developed by NASA in order to quantify the differences in equilibrium thermodynamic properties obtained with the two databases. In addition, a consistent reduction methodology using the mixture thermodynamic properties as an objective function is developed to generate reduced species sets for a variety of temperature, pressure, and elemental composition spaces. It is found that 32 and 23 species are required to model carbon–phenolic pyrolysis gases mixed with air and CO2, respectively, to maintain a maximum error in thermodynamic quantities below 10%.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)177-192
Number of pages16
JournalAerospace Science and Technology
Volume66
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
J.B.S., B.B.F., and T.E.M. were funded by the European Research Council Starting Grant #259354: “Multiphysics models and simulations for reacting and plasma flows applied to the space exploration program.” A.M. was supported through NASA Award NNX13AN04A. J.L. was funded by the NASA Space Technology Research Grants Program, grant NNX12AG47A. J.R. and G.B. were funded by the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research, grant FA9550-12-1-0472. Finally, the authors wish to thank Prof. Burcat for his timely and helpful answers to our questions.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS

Keywords

  • Ablation
  • Carbon–phenolic
  • Pyrolysis
  • Re-entry vehicles
  • Thermal protection materials
  • Thermodynamics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aerospace Engineering

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