Three-dimensional endoscopic pituitary surgery

Abtin Tabaee, Vijay K. Anand, Justin F. Fraser, Seth M. Brown, Ameet Singh, Theodore H. Schwartz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

134 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE: We describe a novel 3-dimensional (3-D) stereoendoscope and discuss our early experience using it to provide improved depth perception during transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. METHODS: Thirteen patients underwent endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery. A 6.5-, 4.9-, or 4.0-mm, 0- and 30-degree rigid 3-D stereoendoscope (Visionsense, Ltd., Petach Tikva, Israel) was used in all cases. The endoscope is based on "compound eye" technology, incorporating a microarray of lenses. Patients were followed prospectively and compared with a matched group of patients who underwent endoscopic surgery with a 2-dimensional (2-D) endoscope. Surgeon comfort and/or complaints regarding the endoscope were recorded. RESULTS: The 3-D endoscope was used as the sole method of visualization to remove 10 pituitary adenomas, 1 cystic xanthogranuloma, 1 metastasis, and 1 cavernous sinus hemangioma. Improved depth perception without eye strain or headache was noted by the surgeons. There were no intraoperative complications. All patients without cavernous sinus extension (7of 9 patients) had gross tumor removal. There were no significant differences in operative time, length of stay, or extent of resection compared with cases in which a 2-D endoscope was used. Subjective depth perception was improved compared with standard 2-D scopes. CONCLUSION: In this first reported series of purely 3-D endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery, we demonstrate subjectively improved depth perception and excellent outcomes with no increase in operative time. Three- dimensional endoscopes may become the standard tool for minimal access neurosurgery.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)ons288-ons293
Issue numberSUPPL. 5
StatePublished - May 2009


  • 3-dimensional
  • Endoscopic
  • Minimal access
  • Minimally invasive
  • Pituitary
  • Transsphenoidal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


Dive into the research topics of 'Three-dimensional endoscopic pituitary surgery'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this