Time in range, as measured by continuous glucose monitor, as a predictor of microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review

Rishi Raj, Rahul Mishra, Nivedita Jha, Vivek Joshi, Ricardo Correa, Philip A. Kern

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)-derived time in range (TIR) correlates with hemoglobin A1c (A1c) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, there is a paucity of data evaluating its association with microvascular complications. We conducted this systematic review to examine the association between TIR and microvascular complications of diabetic retinopathy (DR), diabetic nephropathy (DN), and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). We conducted a comprehensive literature search on PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science online databases following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Full-text original articles that evaluated the association between CGM-derived TIR and risk of microvascular complications and were published between 2010 and June 2021 were included in our systematic review. The quality of the included studies was evaluated using the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Data were analyzed using qualitative synthesis. Eleven studies on a total of 13 987 patients were included in the systematic review. The median sample size, baseline A1c, and diabetes duration were 466 patients (range: 105-5901), 8.2% (SD 0.5%), and 11.3 years (1.0), respectively. Majority of the studies were conducted in Asia (10 out of 11). Four studies evaluated the relationship between CGM-derived TIR and DR and CGM-derived TIR and DN, while seven studies evaluated the relationship between CGM-derived TIR and DPN. A 10% increase in TIR was associated with a reduction in albuminuria, severity of DR, and prevalence of DPN and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. In addition, an association was observed between urinary albumin to creatinine ratio but not with estimated glomerular filtration rate. This review summarizes recent evidence supporting an association between CGM-derived TIR and microvascular complications among patients with T2DM. A larger-scale multicenter investigation that includes more diverse participants is warranted to further validate the utility of TIR as a predictor of diabetic microvascular complications.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere002573
JournalBMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care
Volume10
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 3 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

Keywords

  • Adult
  • Diabetes complications
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Endocrine system
  • Type 2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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