Transcription factors in brain injury

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


After brain injury, neuronal genes are regulated to adjust to an altered environment; however, if neurons are damaged then genes related apoptosis are activated. Glial cells, astrocytes and microglia, respond to neuronal death by transcribing genes to enhance the survival of remaining neurons and for regeneration and repair. AP-1 transcription factors are induced in the neuronal response to injury. Depending on the AP-1 dimer combination, neuronal genes related to either apoptosis or survival are transcribed. A 35 kDa Fos-related antigen:JunD dimer is present in neurons that survive injury. Jun and JunD exists in neurons prior to undergoing apoptosis. Neuronal death activates gene expression in astrocytes and microglia. NFkβ transcription factors are induced in astrocytes reacting to neuronal injury. In the microglial response, STATs appear to be activated to regulate gene transcription. These transcription factors that modulate the genes involved in the cellular processes of brain injury are examined in this review.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1125-1133
Number of pages9
JournalHistology and Histopathology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1997


  • AP-1 transcription factors
  • Microglia
  • Neuronal apoptosis
  • NFκβ transcription factors
  • Reactive astrocytes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Histology


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