The human MnSOD gene has a typical housekeeping gene promoter, but is highly inducible by various physical, chemical, and biological agents. Transcription factors SP-1 and AP-2 seem to have opposite roles in the transcriptional activity of the basal promoter. Whereas SP-1 plays a positive role, which is absolutely essential for transcription from the human MnSOD promoter, AP-2 appears to play a negative role in this process. An enhancer element is found in the promoter region of the human MnSOD gene. Several important enhancer elements are located in the second intron. The NF-κB site in the second intron is essential but not sufficient for high-level induction of MnSOD by cytokines. Although mutations in the regulatory elements may be partially responsible for the lack of induction of MnSOD in some cell types, differences in the degree of induction exist that cannot be accounted for by the defect in the DNA sequence. It is highly likely that this difference is due to the presence or absence of coactivator or suppressor proteins in the cells and may have a physiological role in the defense against oxidative stress.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Methods in Enzymology|
|State||Published - 2002|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology