Transcriptomic phases of periodontitis lesions using the nonhuman primate model

Jeffrey L. Ebersole, Radhakrishnan Nagarajan, Sreenatha Kirakodu, Octavio A. Gonzalez

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9 Scopus citations


We used a nonhuman primate model of ligature-induced periodontitis to identify patterns of gingival transcriptomic after changes demarcating phases of periodontitis lesions (initiation, progression, resolution). A total of 18 adult Macaca mulatta (12–22 years) had ligatures placed (premolar, 1st molar teeth) in all 4 quadrants. Gingival tissue samples were obtained (baseline, 2 weeks, 1 and 3 months during periodontitis and at 5 months resolution). Gene expression was analyzed by microarray [Rhesus Gene 1.0 ST Array (Affymetrix)]. Compared to baseline, a large array of genes were significantly altered at initiation (n = 6049), early progression (n = 4893), and late progression (n = 5078) of disease, with the preponderance being up-regulated. Additionally, 1918 genes were altered in expression with disease resolution, skewed towards down-regulation. Assessment of the genes demonstrated specific profiles of epithelial, bone/connective tissue, apoptosis/autophagy, metabolism, regulatory, immune, and inflammatory responses that were related to health, stages of disease, and tissues with resolved lesions. Unique transcriptomic profiles occured during the kinetics of the periodontitis lesion exacerbation and remission. We delineated phase specific gene expression profiles of the disease lesion. Detection of these gene products in gingival crevicular fluid samples from human disease may contribute to a better understanding of the biological dynamics of the disease to improve patient management.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9282
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank the University of Kentucky Microarray Core for initial analytic support. The work was supported by USPHS grants GM103538/RR020145 and RR03640 to the Caribbean Primate Research Center. Contributions to this work were JLE and OAG in the development and implementation of the protocol, sample collection, data analysis and interpretation, and preparation of the manuscript, SK for preparation of samples, and RN provided the data management, strategy for analysis, and revision of the manuscript. The authors have no conflict of interests with the contents of this report.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s).

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