Objective-: Accumulating experimental evidence implicates β-catenin signaling and enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2) in the progression of vascular calcification, and our previous studies have shown that TG2 can activate β-catenin signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here we investigated the role of the TG2/β-catenin signaling axis in vascular calcification induced by warfarin. Methods and Results-: Warfarin-induced calcification in rat A10 VSMCs is associated with the activation of β-catenin signaling and is independent of oxidative stress. The canonical β-catenin inhibitor Dkk1, but not the Wnt antagonist Wif-1, prevents warfarin-induced activation of β-catenin, calcification, and osteogenic transdifferentiation in VSMCs. TG2 expression and activity are increased in warfarin-treated cells, in contrast to canonical Wnt ligands. Vascular cells with genetically or pharmacologically reduced TG2 activity fail to activate β-catenin in response to warfarin. Moreover, warfarin-induced calcification is significantly reduced on the background of attenuated TG2 both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion-: TG2 is a critical mediator of warfarin-induced vascular calcification that acts through the activation of β-catenin signaling in VSMCs. Inhibition of canonical β-catenin pathway or TG2 activity prevents warfarin-regulated calcification, identifying the TG2/β-catenin axis as a novel therapeutic target in vascular calcification.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology|
|State||Published - Jan 2012|
- transglutaminase 2
- vascular biology
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine