Transition from antiferromagnetic to quadrupole order in a modified square artificial spin ice

Ali Frotanpour, Lance E. DeLong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The results of a numerical study of an ordered substitution of a double-segment into the unit cell of square artificial spin ice are presented. Each pattern vertex has three magnetic moment configurations that compete to form a magnetic ground state in zero applied magnetic field, including nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor interaction contributions to the total magnetostatic energy. The ground state depends on the number of lattice sites considered and the spacing between the two film segments that comprise the double segment. Monte Carlo simulations reveal that the double-segment sublattice undergoes long-range antiferromagnetic order that can be supplanted by magnetic quadrupole order by applying an in-plane magnetic field perpendicular to the double-segment easy axis. The quadrupole-ordered state consists of a sublattice of weakly correlated chains of double-segments with antiparallel polarizations, which admits many different ground states that reflect a very high degree of frustration.

Original languageEnglish
Article number169691
JournalJournal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials
StatePublished - Nov 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier B.V.


  • Artificial spin ice
  • Magnetic field
  • Monte Carlo
  • Ordering
  • Thin film

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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