Purpose: While tree nut consumption has been shown to be cardioprotective, a few studies have examined the relationship between tree nut consumption and carotid atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that tree nut consumption would be inversely related with carotid atherosclerosis in adults. Methods: We cross-sectionally analyzed data from 4536 participants of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Family Heart Study conducted in the United States. Dietary patterns among participants were variable, tree nut consumption was self-reported using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), and B-mode ultrasound of the carotid arteries was used to assess for the presence of carotid artery plaques (primary outcome) and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of prevalent carotid artery plaques and linear regression was used to estimate adjusted mean cIMT across categories of nut consumption. Results: The mean age was 52.3 years (SD = 13.6), 95.6% of the participants were white, and 54% were female. The median tree nut intake was 1–3 servings/month. Odds ratios (95% CI) for prevalent carotid artery plaques were 1.0 (reference), 1.03 [0.86, 1.4], 0.89 [0.70, 1.13], and 0.96 [0.73, 1.26] for tree nut consumption of almost never, 1–3 times/month, 1/week, and 2+/week, respectively, adjusting for age, sex, race, field center, BMI, smoking status, alcohol consumption, creatinine, energy intake, fruit and vegetable consumption, exercise, and education. In secondary analysis, there was a suggestive inverse association of tree nut consumption with cIMT in the internal carotid artery, but not the common carotid or bifurcation. Conclusion: Our data showed no association between tree nut consumption and prevalence of carotid artery plaques in adults.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||European Journal of Nutrition|
|State||Published - Feb 2022|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by Grants U01 HL56563, U01 HL56564, U01 HL56565, U01 HL56566, U01 HL56567, U01 HL56568, and U01 HL56569 from the National Heart, Lung, & Blood Institute. Ms. Ania Stolarczyk was supported by MSTAR Grant # 1T35AG038027 from the National Institute on Aging. Dr. Djousse was also supported by grants R01HL HL131687 and R01 AG053325 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the National Institute on Aging, respectively.
© 2021, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.
- Carotid artery plaques
- Risk factors
- Tree nut consumption
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Nutrition and Dietetics