Diapause that extends across multiple years is considered a bet-hedging strategy in insect species that are exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions. The dynamics of extended diapause in herbivores can be complicated when their parasitoids can also extend diapause, although our knowledge of these dynamics is based primarily on pest species. Here, we report on regional variation in the phenology and life history of Trogus parasitoids of Papilio machaon group swallowtail butterflies in western Canada. We observed flexible phenological patterns in this interaction, with both hosts and parasitoids undergoing extended diapause. Additionally, we documented parasitism of earlier instar larvae in these Trogus species, which to our knowledge has not been observed in North America. Our observations provide a foundation for studying the potential evolutionary consequences of extended diapause in these multispecies interactions.
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Journal of Hymenoptera Research|
|State||Published - 2016|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank A. Bennett for loaning material from the Canadian National Collection. This research was supported by an NSERC Discovery Grant to FAHS, an Alberta Conservation Association Grant in Biodiversity to JRD, and a Canadian Circumpolar Institute, Circumpolar/Boreal Alberta Research Grant to JRD. Collecting in Alberta Provincial parks was conducted under permit number 10-097, and owner's permission was obtained for collecting on any private land.
- Extended diapause
- Papilio machaon
- Papilio zelicaon
- Phenology Copyright Julian R Dupuis et al
- Trogus fulvipes
- Trogus lapidator
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Insect Science