Twenty Year Trends and Sex Differences in Young Adults Hospitalized with Acute Myocardial Infarction: The ARIC Community Surveillance Study

Sameer Arora, George A. Stouffer, Anna M. Kucharska-Newton, Arman Qamar, Muthiah Vaduganathan, Ambarish Pandey, Deborah Porterfield, Ron Blankstein, Wayne D. Rosamond, Deepak L. Bhatt, Melissa C. Caughey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

235 Scopus citations


Background: Sex differences are known to exist in the management of older patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Few studies have examined the incidence and risk factors of AMI among young patients, or whether clinical management differs by sex. Methods: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Surveillance study conducts hospital surveillance of AMI in 4 US communities (MD MN, MS and NC). AMI was classified by physician review, using a validated algorithm. Medications and procedures were abstracted from the medical record. Our study population was limited to young patients aged 35 to 54 years. Results: From 1995 to 2014, 28 732 weighted hospitalizations for AMI were sampled among patients aged 35 to 74 years. Of these, 8737 (30%) were young. The annual incidence of AMI hospitalizations increased for young women but decreased for young men. The overall proportion of AMI admissions attributable to young patients steadily increased, from 27% in 1995 to 1999 to 32% in 2010 to 2014 (P for trend=0.002), with the largest increase observed in young women. History of hypertension (59% to 73%, P for trend<0.0001) and diabetes mellitus (25% to 35%, P for trend<0.0001) also increased among young AMI patients. Compared to young men, young women presenting with AMI were more often black and had a greater comorbidity burden. In adjusted analyses, young women had a lower probability of receiving lipid-lowering therapies (relative risk [RR]=0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80-0.94), nonaspirin antiplatelets (RR=0.83; 95% CI, 0.75-0.91), beta blockers (RR=0.96; 95% CI, 0.91-0.99), coronary angiography (RR=0.93; 95% CI, 0.86-0.99) and coronary revascularization (RR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.71-0.87). However, 1-year all-cause mortality was comparable for women versus men (HR=1.10; 95% CI, 0.83-1.45). Conclusions: The proportion of AMI hospitalizations attributable to young patients increased from 1995 to 2014 and was especially pronounced among women. History of hypertension and diabetes among young patients admitted with AMI increased over time as well. Compared with young men, young women presenting with AMI had a lower likelihood of receiving guideline-based AMI therapies. A better understanding of factors underlying these changes is needed to improve care of young patients with AMI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1047-1056
Number of pages10
Issue number8
StatePublished - Feb 19 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study is carried out as a collaborative study supported by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute contracts (HHSN268201700001I, HHSN268201700002I, HHSN268201700003I, HHSN268201700004I, HHSN268201700005I).

Funding Information:
Dr Arman Qamar is supported by the NHLBI postdoctoral training grant T32 HL007604 and the American Heart Association Strategically Focused Research Network in Vascular Disease under award numbers 18SFRN3390085 (BWH-DH SFRN Center) and 18SFRN33960262 (BWH-DH Clinical Project). Dr Muthiah Vadugana-than is supported by the KL2/Catalyst Medical Research Investigator Training award from Harvard Catalyst | The Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center (National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health Award KL2 UL 1TR002541), and serves on advisory boards for AstraZeneca, Bayer AG, and Baxter Healthcare. Dr Deepak L. Bhatt discloses the following relationships -Advisory Board: Cardax, Elsevier Practice Update Cardiology, Medscape Cardiology, Regado Biosciences; Board of Directors: Boston VA Research Institute, Society of Cardiovascular Patient Care, TobeSoft; Chair: American Heart Association Quality Oversight Committee; Data Monitoring Committees: Baim Institute for Clinical Research (formerly Harvard Clinical Research Institute, for the PORTICO trial, funded by St. Jude Medical, now Abbott), Cleveland Clinic, Duke Clinical Research Institute, Mayo Clinic, Mount Sinai School of Medicine (for the ENVISAGE trial, funded by Daiichi Sankyo), Population Health Research Institute; Honoraria: American College of Cardiology (Senior Associate Editor, Clinical Trials and News, ACC. org; Vice-Chair, ACC Accreditation Committee), Baim Institute for Clinical Research (formerly Harvard Clinical Research Institute; RE-DUAL PCI clinical trial steering committee funded by Boehringer Ingelheim), Belvoir Publications (Editor in Chief, Harvard Heart Letter), Duke Clinical Research Institute (clinical trial steering committees), HMP Global (Editor in Chief, Journal of Invasive Cardiology), Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Guest Editor; Associate Editor), Population Health Research Institute (for the COMPASS operations committee, publications committee, steering committee, and USA national coleader, funded by Bayer), Slack Publications (Chief Medical Editor, Cardiology Today’s Intervention), Society of Cardiovascular Patient Care (Secretary/Treasurer), WebMD (CME steering committees); Other: Clinical Cardiology (Deputy Editor), NCDR-ACTION Registry Steering Committee (Chair), VA CART Research and Publications Committee (Chair); Research Funding: Abbott, Amarin, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Chiesi, Eisai, Ethicon, Forest Laboratories, Idorsia, Ironwood, Ischemix, Lilly, Medtronic, PhaseBio, Pfizer, Regeneron, Roche, Sanofi Aventis, Synaptic, The Medicines Company; Royalties: Elsevier (Editor, Cardiovascular Intervention: A Companion to Braunwald’s Heart Disease); Site Co-Investigator: Biotronik, Boston Scientific, St. Jude Medical (now Abbott), Svelte; Trustee: American College of Cardiology; Unfunded Research: Fractyl, FlowCo, Merck, Novo Nordisk, PLx Pharma, Takeda. The other authors have no relevant conflicts of interest to disclose.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 American Heart Association, Inc.


  • acute myocardial infarction
  • epidemiology
  • sex differences

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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