ObjectiveTo study longitudinal relationships between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cortical thickness, and cognitive function in older people with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer disease (AD).MethodsThe sample was derived from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort who underwent brain MRI and cognitive tests annually for 5 years. Presence of T2DM was based on fasting blood glucose ≥7.0mml/L or the use of glucose-lowering agents. We used latent growth curve modeling to explore longitudinal relationships between T2DM, cortical thickness, and cognitive function, adjusting for relevant covariates and testing for interactions.ResultsThere were 124 people with T2DM (mean age 75.5 years, SD 6.2) and 693 without T2DM (mean age 75.1 years, SD 6.9) with at least 1 MRI available. AD and lower cortical thickness at study entry was associated with a lower chance of having a MRI available at each follow-up phase (all p < 0.001). T2DM was associated with lower baseline cortical thickness (p = 0.01). We found no direct effect of T2DM on decline in cortical thickness or cognitive function, but there was an indirect pathway linking T2DM and cognitive decline via baseline cortical thickness (β = -0.17, p = 0.022). There was an interaction between T2DM and education whereby the negative effect of T2DM on baseline cortical thickness was reduced in those with greater education (β = 0.34, p = 0.037). These associations changed minimally when adjusted for baseline cognitive diagnosis.ConclusionsIn an older cohort with low cerebrovascular disease burden, T2DM contributes to cognitive decline via neurodegeneration. Prior brain and cognitive reserve may protect against this effect.
|State||Published - Feb 19 2019|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
C. Moran is a recipient of an NMRC-ARC Dementia Research Development Fellowship. R. Beare is a recipient of NHMRC project grants. W. Wang reports no disclosures relevant to the manuscript. M. Callisaya is a recipient of an Alzheimer’s Australia Research Foundation Grant & NHMRC Early Career Fellowship. V. Srikanth is a recipient of a National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Practitioner Fellowship and NHMRC project grants. Go to Neurology.org/N for full disclosures.
Data collection and sharing for this project was funded by the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) (NIH grant U01 AG024904) and DOD ADNI (Department of Defense award number W81XWH-12-2-0012). ADNI is funded by the National Institute on Aging, the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, and through contributions from the following: AbbVie; Alzheimer’s Association; Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation; Araclon Biotech; BioClinica, Inc.; Biogen; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company; CereSpir, Inc.; Cogstate; Eisai Inc.; Elan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Eli Lilly and Company; EuroImmun; F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. and its affiliated company Genentech, Inc.; Fujirebio; GE Healthcare; IXICO Ltd.; Janssen Alzheimer Immunotherapy Research & Development, LLC; Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development LLC; Lumosity; Lundbeck; Merck & Co., Inc.; Meso Scale Diagnostics, LLC; NeuroRx Research; Neurotrack Technologies; Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation; Pfizer Inc.; Piramal Imaging; Servier; Takeda Pharmaceutical Company; and Transition Therapeutics. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research is providing funds to support ADNI clinical sites in Canada. Private sector contributions are facilitated by the Foundation for the NIH (fnih.org). The grantee organization is the Northern California Institute for Research and Education, and the study is coordinated by the Alzheimer’s Therapeutic Research Institute at the University of Southern California. ADNI data are disseminated by the Laboratory for Neuro Imaging at the University of Southern California.
© 2019 American Academy of Neurology.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology