Type D personality predicts poor medication adherence in patients with heart failure in the USA

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34 Scopus citations


Background: Type D (distressed) personality and medication nonadherence have been associated with poor health outcomes. Type D personality is associated with poor medication adherence in patients with coronary artery disease. However, the relationship between type D personality and medication adherence in patients with heart failure (HF) remains unknown. Purpose: Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the association between type D personality and medication adherence in patients with HF. Method: This was a sub-analysis of baseline data from a randomized controlled trial with 84 patients with HF in the USA. Demographic, clinical, and psychological data were collected at baseline by interview, questionnaires, and medical record review. Type D personality was assessed using the Type D Personality Scale (DS14). Medication adherence was measured using both objective (Medication Event Monitoring System, MEMS) and self-reported (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, MMAS-4) measures. Patients started medication adherence monitoring with the MEMS bottle at baseline and is used continuously for a month. Multiple regressions were used to explore the relationships between type D personality and medication adherence while adjusting for demographic, clinical, and psychological factors. Results: Patients with type D personality were more likely to have poor medication adherence. Type D personality was associated with medication adherence before and after adjusting for covariates when it was analyzed as a categorical variable. However, type D personality was not associated with medication adherence when analyzed as a dimensional construct. Negative affectivity, a component of type D personality, was associated with medication adherence. Conclusion: As a dimensional construct, type D personality may not reflect the components of the personality associated with poor outcomes. Negative affectivity was associated with medication adherence in patients with HF. Interventions aiming to improving/enhancing medication adherence need to take into account patients with the negative affectivity component of type D personality who are at higher risk for poor medication adherence, which may lead to adverse health outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)833-842
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Behavioral Medicine
StatePublished - 2014

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments This study was supported by funding from was supported by the Philips Medical-American Association of Critical Care Nurses Outcomes Grant (Jia-Rong Wu, principal investigator), American Heart Association Great River Affiliate Post-doctoral Fellowship to Jia-Rong Wu, the National Institute Of Nursing Research of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number K23NR014489 (Jia-Rong Wu, principal investigator), and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Junior Faculty Development Award and a Center grant to the University of Kentucky, College of Nursing from NIH, NINR, 1P20NR010679 (Debra Moser, principal investigator). Funding agents have no role in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2013 International Society of Behavioral Medicine.


  • Heart failure
  • Medication adherence
  • Type D personality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology


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