Type D personality, self-efficacy, and medication adherence in patients with heart failure-A mediation analysis

Jia Rong Wu, Eun Kyeung Song, Debra K. Moser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Background: Type D personality is associated with medication non-adherence. Both Type D personality and non-adherence are predictors of poor outcomes. Self-efficacy, which is modifiable, is also associated with medication adherence. Objectives: To determine the relationships among Type D personality, self-efficacy, and medication adherence in 84 heart failure patients. Methods: Self-efficacy, Type D personality, medication adherence, demographic and clinical data were collected. Hierarchical linear regression was used. Results: Type D patients were more likely to have lower self-efficacy (p =023) and medication non-adherence (p =027) than non-Type D patients. Low self-efficacy was associated with medication non-adherence (p <.001). Type D personality didn't predict medication adherence after entering self-efficacy in the model (p =422), demonstrating mediation. Conclusions: Self-efficacy mediates the relationship between Type D personality and medication adherence. Developing and applying interventions to enhance self-efficacy may help to sever the link between Type D personality and poor outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)276-281
Number of pages6
JournalHeart and Lung
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by funding from was supported by the Philips Medical-American Association of Critical Care Nurses Outcomes Grant (Jia-Rong Wu, principal investigator), American Heart Association Great River Affiliate Post-doctoral Fellowship to Jia-Rong Wu, the National Institute of Nursing Research of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number K23NR014489 (Jia-Rong Wu, principal investigator), and a Center grant to the University of Kentucky, College of Nursing from NIH, NINR , 1P20NR010679 (Debra Moser, principal investigator). Funding agents have no role in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Elsevier Inc.


  • Heart failure
  • Medication adherence
  • Medication self-efficacy
  • Type D personality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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