Molecular sorting of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) between divergent recycling and lysosomal pathways determines the functional consequences of agonist-induced endocytosis. The carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) mediates both PDZ binding to Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor/ezrin/radixin/moesin-binding phosphoprotein of 50 kDa (NHERF/EBP50) family proteins and non-PDZ binding to the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF). We have investigated whether PDZ interaction(s) are actually sufficient to promote rapid recycling of endocytosed receptors and, if so, whether PDZ-mediated sorting is restricted to the β2AR tail or to sequences that bind NHERF/EBP50. The trafficking effects of short (10 residue) sequences differing in PDZ and NSF binding properties were examined using chimeric mutant receptors. The recycling activity of the β2AR- derived tail sequence was not blocked by a point mutation that selectively disrupts binding to NSF, and naturally occurring PDZ ligand sequences were identified that do not bind detectably to NSF yet function as strong recycling signals. The carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the β1- adrenergic receptor, which does not bind either to NSF or NHERF/EBP50 and interacts selectively with a distinct group of PDZ proteins, promoted rapid recycling of chimeric mutant receptors with efficiency similarly high as that of the β2AR tail. These results indicate that PDZ domain-mediated protein interactions are sufficient to promote rapid recycling of GPCRs, independent of binding to NSF. They also suggest that PDZ-directed recycling is a rather general mechanism of GPCR regulation, which is not restricted to a single GPCR, and may involve additional PDZ domain-containing protein(s) besides NHERF/EBP50.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|State||Published - Feb 4 2005|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology