Type II dilemma zone at high-speed signalized intersections in Poland

R. Bąk, J. Chodur, N. Stamatiadis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Red-light running at intersections is a common problem that may have severe consequences for traffic safety. The present paper investigates driver behavior in dilemma zones in Polish conditions. Based on the empirical research conducted at 25 urban and rural signalized intersections, type II dilemma zone boundaries were determined. In this study, generalized linear regression models were used to fit the probability of stopping to explanatory variables. Seeing as the dependent variable is dichotomous (stop/go), binary logistic regression was used for predicting the probability of the outcome based on the values of continuous or categorical predictor variables. The results show that factors which have a statistically significant effect on drivers' propensity to stop include: Vehicle type, the geometry of the intersection, location of signal heads and platooning on the approach to the stop line. Type-II dilemma zone boundaries are situated at the following distance: The beginning from 1.9 s to 2.4 s, and end from 5.0 to 5.9 s (on average 2.2 ÷ 5.4 s) from the stop line.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)673-685
Number of pages13
JournalArchives of Civil Engineering
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021. R. Bak, J. Chodur, N. Stamatiadis.


  • Dilemma zone
  • Driver behavior
  • Road safety
  • Signalized intersection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering


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