Understanding the sources of errors in ex vivo Hsp90 molecular imaging for rapid-on-site breast cancer diagnosis

Roujia Wang, Daniel A. Alvarez, Brian T. Crouch, Aditi Pilani, Christopher Lam, Caigang Zhu, Philip Hughes, David Katz, Timothy Haystead, Nirmala Ramanujam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Overexpression of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) on the surface of breast cancer cells makes it an attractive molecular biomarker for breast cancer diagnosis. Before a ubiquitous diagnostic method can be established, an understanding of the systematic errors in Hsp90-based imaging is essential. In this study, we investigated three factors that may influence the sensitivity of ex vivo Hsp90 molecular imaging: time-dependent tissue viability, nonspecific diffusion of an Hsp90 specific probe (HS-27), and contact-based imaging. These three factors will be important considerations when designing any diagnostic imaging strategy based on fluorescence imaging of a molecular target on tissue samples.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2299-2311
Number of pages13
JournalBiomedical Optics Express
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (5R01EB028148-02, 5R21EB025008-02).

Funding Information:
Acknowledgements. This work was supported by generous funding from NIH (5R21EB025008-02, 5R01EB028148-02). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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