Unified model formulations for synchronous machine model with saturation and arbitrary rotor network representation

Yu Qi Zhang, Aaron M. Cramer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Numerous models and formulations have been used to study synchronous machines in different applications. Herein, a unified derivation of the various model formulations, which support direct interface to external circuitry in a variety of scenarios, is presented. A synchronous machine model with magnetizing path saturation including cross saturation and an arbitrary rotor network representation is considered. This model has been extensively experimentally validated and includes most existing machine models as special cases. Derivations of the standard voltage-in, current-out formulation as well as formulations in which the stator and/or the field windings are represented in a voltage-behind-reactance form are presented in a unified manner, including the derivation of a field-only voltage-behind-reactance formulation. The formulations are compared in a variety of simulation scenarios to show the relative advantages in terms of time steps, run time, and accuracy. It has been demonstrated that selection of the formulation with the most suitable interface for the simulation scenario has better accuracy, fewer time steps, and less run time.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7490383
Pages (from-to)1356-1365
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 1986-2012 IEEE.


  • AC machines
  • electric machines
  • modeling
  • simulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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