Untangling Threat during Inoculation-Conferred Resistance to Influence

Josh Compton, Bobi Ivanov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Threat plays a pivotal role in many theoretical explanations for how inoculation confers resistance, but some empirical data raise questions about threat's role in inoculation. Our study explores some of the unresolved dimensions of threat in inoculation theory. Results indicate that an explicit forewarning included in an inoculation treatment message generates threat, as does the presence of counterarguments and their refutations. Follow-up tests suggest that the forewarning component may be most responsible for generated threat in inoculation, and that a prompt to consider experienced threat may lead to enhanced resistance to subsequent attack messages.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalCommunication Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2012


  • Forewarning
  • Inoculation Theory
  • Resistance To Influence
  • Threat

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Communication
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language


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