Using Client Feedback in Psychotherapy Training: An Analysis of its Influence on Supervision and Counselor Self-Efficacy

Robert J. Reese, Ellen L. Usher, Derek C. Bowman, Larry A. Norsworthy, Jackie L. Halstead, Steven R. Rowlands, Rachael R. Chisholm

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

98 Scopus citations


Tracking client outcome and the therapeutic relationship across treatment (i.e., client feedback) has become a recommended practice for clinicians. This study investigated whether the utility of this practice would extend to trainees if the data gained from clients was provided to their supervisor for use within supervision. Trainees (N = 28) were assigned to a continuous feedback condition or no-feedback condition for 1 academic year. Results indicated that trainees in both conditions demonstrated better client outcomes at the end of their practicum training than at the beginning, but those in the feedback condition improved more. However, those in the feedback condition did not rate the supervisory alliance or satisfaction with the supervision process differently. The relationship between counselor self-efficacy and outcome was stronger for trainees in the feedback condition than for those in the no-feedback condition, perhaps indicating that feedback may facilitate a more accurate assessment of one's skills. Implications of how counseling self-efficacy, the supervisory alliance, and satisfaction with supervision are related to effective supervision are addressed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)157-168
Number of pages12
JournalTraining and Education in Professional Psychology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2009


  • client progress and outcome
  • counseling effectiveness
  • counselor self-efficacy
  • counselor trainee
  • psychotherapy supervision

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Psychology (all)


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