Using response-prompting procedures during small-group direct instruction: Outcomes and procedural variations

Jennifer R. Ledford, Justin D. Lane, Katherine L. Elam, Mark Wolery

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


Research was reviewed on small-group instruction for learners with disabilities. The review was conducted for articles published between 1990 and 2010 on the application of smallgroup direct instruction to teach discrete skills using prompting procedures. A total of 47 articles with 197 participants and 687 replications of effects was located. Small-group instruction was effective for 195 of 197 participants and across variations in implementation and contexts. Implementers were primarily special education personnel, and instruction typically occurred in special education settings. Rigorous designs were used in all studies, and fidelity was assessed in 46 of 47 studies and was uniformly high. Students consistently reached criterion on their own target behaviors, generalized those behaviors, maintained them, and learned the behaviors taught to their peers (when this was measured, which occurred in a majority of the studies). Future research should examine comparisons of procedural variables and promoting social behaviors between group mates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)413-434
Number of pages22
JournalAmerican Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2012


  • Direct instruction
  • Discrete behaviors
  • Prompting procedures
  • Small group

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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