Valence QCD: Connecting QCD to the quark model

K. F. Liu, S. J. Dong, T. Draper, D. Leinweber, J. Sloan, W. Wilcox, R. M. Woloshyn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

88 Scopus citations


A valence QCD theory is developed to study the valence quark properties of hadrons. To keep only the valence degrees of freedom, the pair creation through the Z graphs is deleted in the connected insertions, whereas the sea quarks are eliminated in the disconnected insertions. This is achieved with a new “valence QCD” Lagrangian where the action in the time direction is modified so that the particle and antiparticle decouple. It is shown in this valence version of QCD that the ratios of isovector to isoscalar matrix elements (e.g., (Formula presented) and (Formula presented) ratios) in the nucleon reproduce the SU(6) quark model predictions in a lattice QCD calculation. We also consider how the hadron masses are affected on the lattice and discover new insights into the origin of dynamical mass generation. It is found that, within statistical errors, the nucleon and the (Formula presented) become degenerate for the quark masses we have studied (ranging from 1 to 4 times the strange mass). The (Formula presented) and (Formula presented) become nearly degenerate in this range. It is shown that valence QCD has the C P T symmetries. The lattice version is reflection positive. It also has the vector and axial symmetries. The latter leads to a modified partially conserved axial Ward identity. As a result, the theory has a (Formula presented) symmetry in the particle-antiparticle space. Through lattice simulation, it appears that this is dynamically broken down to (Formula presented). Furthermore, the lattice simulation reveals spin degeneracy in the hadron masses and various matrix elements. This leads to an approximate (Formula presented) symmetry which is the basis for the valence quark model. In addition, we find that the masses of N, (Formula presented), and (Formula presented) all drop precipitously compared to their counterparts in the quenched QCD calculation. This is interpreted as due to the disappearance of the “constituent” quark mass which is dynamically generated through tadpole diagrams. The origin of the hyperfine splitting in the baryon is largely attributed to the Goldstone boson exchanges between the quarks. Both of these are the consequences of the lack of chiral symmetry in valence QCD. We discuss its implications concerning the models of hadrons.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPhysical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Apr 27 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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