Validation of Longitudinal Progression Examinations for Prediction of APPE Readiness

Esther P. Black, Mandy Jones, Mikael Jones, Houston Williams, Ellen Julian, Danielle R. Wilson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective: To study curricular outcomes for the purpose of holistic improvement of the curriculum. Methods: A single-institution retrospective cohort study evaluated 3 cohorts of Doctor of Pharmacy students entering the program through performance in Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE) rotations. Assessment scores and pass/fail outcomes were collected from the 3 examinations to use as predictors, and the numbers of “needs improvement” (NI) and “unsatisfactory” (U) ratings from preceptors during the APPE rotations served as outcome measures. Results: Pharmacy mathematics competency and Milemarker 1 (MM1) examination first-time scores, but not those from Milemarker 2 (MM2), were significantly associated with NI or U scores on required APPE rotations. Significant correlations for all examinations (pharmacy mathematics competency, MM1, and MM2) were found for the Acute Care/Inpatient APPE rotation for each cohort and the combined cohorts. Significant correlations were also found between all examinations and the APPE rotation courses Advanced Hospital and Ambulatory Care, with the exception of the 2021 cohort. Performance in the Advanced Community rotation was not associated with any of the examinations. MM1 and MM2 are both reliable measures of competence in our didactic curriculum and predictive of scoring an NI or U rating in the APPE Acute Care/Inpatient rotation. Conclusion: The longitudinal milestone examinations used in our institution provide a mechanism to identify students likely to struggle in required APPE rotations and target them for remediation activities.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100137
JournalAmerican Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy


  • APPE readiness
  • Predictive validity
  • Programmatic assessment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Pharmacy
  • General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics


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