Vehicle-Life Interaction in Fog-Enabled Smart Connected and Autonomous Vehicles

Bushra Feroz, Amjad Mehmood, Hafsa Maryam, Sherali Zeadally, Carsten Maple, Munam Ali Shah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Traffic accidents have become a major issue for researchers, academia, government and vehicle manufacturers over the last few years. Many accidents and emergency situations frequently occur on the road. Unfortunately, accidents lead to health injuries, destruction of some infrastructure, bad traffic flow, and more importantly these events cause deaths of hundreds of thousands of people due to not getting treatment in time. Thus, we need to develop an efficient and smart emergency system to ensure the timely arrival of an ambulance service to the place of the accident in order to provide timely medical help to those injured. In addition, we also need to communicate promptly with other entities such as hospitals so that they can make appropriate arrangements and provide timely medical information to emergency personnel on the scene including alerting those related to the injured person(s). In this paper, we have developed an intelligent protocol that uses connected and autonomous vehicles' scenarios in Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) so that prompt emergency services can be provided to reduce the death rate caused. The proposed protocol smartly connects with all the relevant entitles during the emergency while maintaining a smooth traffic flow for the arrival of the ambulance service. Moreover, our protocol also mitigates the broadcasting of messages circulating over the network for delay sensitive tasks. The evaluation results, based on the performance metrics such as channel collision, average packet delay, packet loss, and routing-overhead demonstrate that our proposed protocol outperforms previously proposed protocols such as Emergency Message Dissemination for Vehicular (EMDV), Contention Based Broadcasting (CBB), and Particle Swarm Optimization Contention-based Broadcast (PCBB) protocols. Finally, we discuss several issues and challenges that need to be addressed in the network in order to achieve more a reliable, efficient, connected, and autonomous vehicular network.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9312646
Pages (from-to)7402-7420
Number of pages19
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2013 IEEE.


  • Accident
  • VANETs
  • ambulance service
  • intelligent transportation system
  • smart emergency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science
  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering


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