Virus strain influenced the interspecies transmission of influenza D virus between calves and pigs

Bryan S. Kaplan, Shollie Falkenberg, Rohana Dassanayake, John Neill, Binu Velayudhan, Feng Li, Amy L. Vincent

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Influenza D viruses (IDV) belong to a new genus in the family Orthomyxoviridae. IDV is the aetiologic agent of acute, mild respiratory disease in ungulate species with agricultural importance (cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, camels, etc.). Despite the initial isolate being of porcine origin, serological data suggest cattle to be the primary host of IDV. The study aims were twofold: elucidating species-specific replication kinetics of IDV in bovine and porcine hosts and defining the interspecies potential with two different IDV strains. Three calves and three pigs were intranasally inoculated with the prototypic strain D/swine/Oklahoma/1334/2017 or a genetically distinct cattle isolate, D/bovine/Texas/72/2017. Two days following infection, three naïve pigs and three naïve calves were co-housed with inoculated calves and pigs, respectively. The species of IDV origin had no effect on virus replication kinetics in the upper respiratory tract of inoculated calves and pigs; similar shedding profiles were observed for each species and virus. However, interspecies transmission was found to be associated with virus origin species; D/bovine/Texas/72/2017 and D/swine/Oklahoma/1334/2017 were directly transmitted only to contact calves or pigs, respectively. Even so, transmission efficiency was higher for calves compared to pigs. Together, these data show that cattle and pigs are permissive for IDV replication, but IDV transmission may be species dependent. Host-specific mutations likely influenced transmission efficiencies between agriculturally important mammalian species.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3396-3404
Number of pages9
JournalTransboundary and Emerging Diseases
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors wish to thank Renae Lesan, Patricia Federico and Kathy McMullen for technical assistance and Jason Huegel, Randy Leon, Justin Miller and Keiko Sampson for assistance with animal studies. BSK is supported by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) through an interagency agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and USDA under contract number DE‐AC05‐06OR23100. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.

Publisher Copyright:
© Published 2020. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


  • cattle
  • influenza
  • swine
  • transmission

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Microbiology (all)
  • Veterinary (all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Virus strain influenced the interspecies transmission of influenza D virus between calves and pigs'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this