Vitamin D receptor Fok1 polymorphism and blood lead concentration in children

Erin N. Haynes, Heidi J. Kalkwarf, Richard Hornung, Richard Wenstrup, Kim Dietrich, Bruce P. Lanphear

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


Variation in blood lead concentration is caused by a complex interaction of environmental, social, nutritional, and genetic factors. We evaluated the association between blood lead concentration and a vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism. Environmental samples and blood were analyzed for lead, nutritional and behavioral factors were assessed, and VDR-Fok1 genotype was determined in 245 children. We found a significant interaction between floor dust lead and genotype on blood lead concentration. For every 1 μg/ft2 increase in floor dust, children with VDR-FF genotype had a 1.1% increase in blood lead [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.69-1.5], VDR-Ff, 0.53% increase (95% CI, 0.1-0.92), and VDR-ff, 3.8% increase (95% CI, 1.2-6.3); however, at floor dust levels < 10 μg/ft2, children with VDR-ff had the lowest blood lead concentrations. These data suggest that VDR-Fok1 is an effect modifier of the relationship of floor dust lead exposure and blood lead concentration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1665-1669
Number of pages5
JournalEnvironmental Health Perspectives
Issue number13
StatePublished - Oct 1 2003


  • Child
  • Dust
  • Environmental exposure
  • Fok1
  • Gene-environment
  • Lead
  • Lead poisoning
  • VDR
  • Vitamin D receptor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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