Vitamin D status associates with skeletal muscle loss after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

Yuan Wen, Christine M. Latham, Angelique N. Moore, Nicholas T. Thomas, Brooke D. Lancaster, Kelsey A. Reeves, Alexander R. Keeble, Christopher S. Fry, Darren L. Johnson, Katherine L. Thompson, Brian Noehren, Jean L. Fry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Although 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations of 30 ng/mL or higher are known to reduce injury risk and boost strength, the influence on anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) outcomes remains unexamined. This study aimed to define the vitamin D signaling response to ACLR, assess the relationship between vitamin D status and muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and bone density outcomes, and discover vitamin D receptor (VDR) targets after ACLR. METHODS. Twenty-one young, healthy, physically active participants with recent ACL tears were enrolled (17.8 ± 3.2 years, BMI 26.0 ± 3.5 kg/m2). Data were collected through blood samples, vastus lateralis biopsies, dual energy x-ray bone density measurements, and isokinetic dynamometer measures at baseline, 1 week, 4 months, and 6 months after ACLR. The biopsies facilitated CSA, Western blotting, RNA-seq, and VDR ChIP-seq analyses. RESULTS. ACLR surgery led to decreased circulating bioactive vitamin D and increased VDR and activating enzyme expression in skeletal muscle 1 week after ACLR. Participants with less than 30 ng/mL 25(OH)D levels (n = 13) displayed more significant quadriceps fiber CSA loss 1 week and 4 months after ACLR than those with 30 ng/mL or higher (n = 8; P < 0.01 for post hoc comparisons; P = 0.041 for time × vitamin D status interaction). RNA-seq and ChIP-seq data integration revealed genes associated with energy metabolism and skeletal muscle recovery, potentially mediating the impact of vitamin D status on ACLR recovery. No difference in bone mineral density losses between groups was observed. CONCLUSION. Correcting vitamin D status prior to ACLR may aid in preserving skeletal muscle during recovery.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere170518
JournalJCI insight
Volume8
Issue number23
DOIs
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, Wen et al.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine

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