Wetting kinetics of eutectic lead and lead-free solders: Spreading over the Cu surface

Hui Zhao, Dinesh Reddy Nalagatla, Dusan P. Sekulic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Wetting kinetics of Sn, eutectic Sn-Ag, eutectic Sn-Cu, and eutectic Pb-Sn was studied using real-time in situ monitoring of the triple-line movement, facilitated by a hot-stage microscopy system under a controlled atmosphere. Significantly different kinetics of lead versus lead-free solders is documented. In case of the eutectic lead solder, four characteristic spreading stages were identified. Spreading of lead-free solders features two stages with a sharp change of the spreading rate at the early stages of rather insignificant spreading. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis of the resolidified solder surface within a halo region is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)284-291
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2009

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors acknowledge the support of the Kentucky Science and Engineering Foundation through the Grants KSEF-07-RDE-010 and KSEF-829-RDE-007. One of the authors (D.R.N.) acknowledges the support of the UK Center for Manufacturing.


  • Lead-free and lead solders
  • Soldering
  • Wetting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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