What guides internship supervision? A survey of music therapy internship supervisors

Jessica Rushing, Lori F. Gooding, Philip Westgate

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


In the United States, intern supervision plays a pivotal role in the pre-professional development of music therapists. While various supervision resources are available, there is limited information on factors that impact supervision practices. A survey was distributed to investigate supervision practices used by music therapy internship directors and supervisors practicing under the American Music Therapy Association guidelines. Survey questions explored the use of supervision approaches or models, factors that influence supervision style (e.g., training), and competency placement/ideal competency placement across internship stages. Seventy-two complete responses were collected. Thirteen respondents reported using specific guidelines for intern supervision. Use of guidelines was influenced by training factors and experience. Supervision style was most influenced by respondents’ own supervisor. Differences existed between ideal and actual competency focus across the internship training experience. Results suggest that use of a model of supervision that allows for adaptation of individual developmental needs may be valued by music therapy supervisors and increase satisfaction with supervision.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)74-83
Number of pages10
JournalMusic Therapy Perspectives
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 12 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© American Music Therapy Association 2018. All rights reserved.


  • Competency-based education
  • Internship
  • Music therapy
  • Supervision

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Music
  • Complementary and alternative medicine


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