What predicts the first peak of the knee adduction moment?

Anne Schmitz, Brian Noehren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Background: The first peak of the knee adduction moment curve during walking has been shown to be a good clinical surrogate measure of medial tibiofemoral joint loading and osteoarthritis. Defining the relative contributions of the variables that dictate the knee adduction moment, such as center of mass, center of pressure, vertical ground reaction force, and knee adduction angle (i.e. lower limb alignment), has not been formally investigated within the same cohort of individuals. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine which of these variables is the biggest determinant of the first peak of knee adduction moment curve. Methods: Instrumented gait analysis was collected for 30 individuals. Variables significantly correlated with the peak knee adduction moment were input into a stepwise multi-variable linear regression model. Results: The knee adduction angle predicted 58% of the variance in the first peak knee adduction moment and the vertical ground reaction force magnitude predicted the second most variance (20%). Conclusions: The most effective way to modify the peak knee adduction moment may be to change the knee adduction angle (e.g. offloader brace), followed by changing the vertical magnitude of the ground reaction force (e.g. cane use). Clinical relevance: Defining the major determinants of the knee adduction moment may help guide clinicians in choosing conservative interventions to reduce it in conditions such as medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1077-1083
Number of pages7
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2014

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 Elsevier B.V.


  • Center of mass
  • Center of pressure
  • First peak knee adduction moment
  • Knee adduction angle
  • Vertical ground reaction force

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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