What was stonewall? The role of GLB knowledge in marriage amendment-related affect and activism among family members of GLB individuals

Sharon G. Horne, Sharon S. Rostosky, Ellen D.B. Riggle, Matthew P. Martens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Drawing on sexual identity development theory and interpersonal contact theory, this study explored GLB knowledge and GLB internalized affirmation as mediators of connection to GLB community and outcomes including negative marriage amendment-related affect and level of activism among familymembers of GLB individuals (N = 206). Using structural equation modeling, knowledge of GLB history and symbols mediated the relationship between the connection of family members to GLB community and negative marriage amendment affect as well as reported GLB activism. Although GLB connection positively predicted internalized affirmation, a mediating relationship was not found. The findings suggest family members who engage with GLB issues beyond interpersonal contact and self-disclosure to encompass a broad civil rights perspective on GLB rights are most negatively impacted by marriage amendments in terms of affect and are most likely to engage in GLB-specific activism. Implications of the findings are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)349-364
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of GLBT Family Studies
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2010

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported in part by grants from the American Psychological Foundation’s Wayne F. Placek Award and The University of Kentucky’s Center for Drug and Alcohol Research. We would like to thank C. Stuart Reedy for his invaluable assistance with the on-line survey. We could not have accomplished this project without his help. To members of Dr. Horne’s research team, we say many thanks for performing the data management for the project. Preliminary results from this research study were presented at the March 2008 meeting of the International Counseling Psychology Conference, Chicago, Illinois.

Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Bisexual
  • Coming out
  • Family of origin
  • GLB attitudes
  • GLB knowledge
  • Gay
  • Heterosexism
  • Lesbian
  • Same-sex marriage
  • Social activism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gender Studies
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)


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