Willingness to Participate in At-Home HIV Testing Among Young Adults Who Use Opioids in Rural Appalachia

April M. Ballard, Regine Haardöerfer, Nadya Prood, Chukwudi Mbagwu, Hannah L.F. Cooper, April M. Young

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


New HIV infections associated with injection drug use are of major concern in rural US communities. This study explores acceptability of, consent for, and uptake of free at-home HIV testing among people who use drugs (PWUD) in one of the nation’s epicenters for drug-related harms and HIV vulnerability: Rural Central Appalachia. Eligible participants were 18–35 years old, lived in Appalachian Kentucky, and reported using opioids to get high in the previous 30 days. A majority reported being likely (63.6%, 96/151) to take a free at-home HIV tests and 66.9% (101/151) consented to receive one. Among those who were randomly selected to receive a Home Access HIV-1 test kit (n = 37), 37.8% mailed in blood spots and 21.6% called to receive results. This study provides evidence that PWUD may be willing to take an at-home test, but other barriers may inhibit actual completion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)699-708
Number of pages10
JournalAIDS and Behavior
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (R21 DA042727; principal investigators (PIs): Cooper and Young). Community partners who provided feedback during the development of the survey were identified through an ongoing study supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), and the Appalachian Regional Commission (UG3 DA044798; PIs: Young and Cooper); the content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health, CDC, SAMHSA, or ARC. The authors thank community researchers, Mary Beth Lawson, Travis Green, and Cindy Jolly for assistance with survey administration and logistics, Kevin Tillman for literature review assistance, as well as the Emory Center for AIDS Research (P30 AI050409; PIs: del Rio, Curran, Hunter), Nicole Luisi, and Danielle Lambert for technical support with survey programming.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


  • HIV
  • Home-based testing
  • Rural health
  • Substance-related disorders

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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