X-Ray Constraints on the Hot Gaseous Corona of Edge-on Late-type Galaxies in Virgo

Meicun Hou, Lin He, Zhensong Hu, Zhiyuan Li, Christine Jones, William Forman, Yuanyuan Su, Jing Wang, Luis C. Ho

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1 Scopus citations


We present a systematic study of the putative hot gas corona around late-type galaxies (LTGs) residing in the Virgo cluster, based on archival Chandra observations. Our sample consists of 21 nearly edge-on galaxies representing a range of star formation rate (SFR) of 0.2-3 M yr−1 and a range of stellar mass (M *) of (0.2-10) × 1010 M , the majority of which have not been explored with high-sensitivity X-ray observations so far. Significant extraplanar diffuse X-ray (0.5-2 keV) emission is detected in only three LTGs, which are also the three galaxies with the highest SFR. A stacking analysis is performed for the remaining galaxies without individual detection, dividing the whole sample into two subsets based on SFR, stellar mass, or specific SFR. Only the high-SFR bin yields a significant detection, which has a value of L X ∼ 3 × 1038 erg s−1 per galaxy. The stacked extraplanar X-ray signals of the Virgo LTGs are consistent with the empirical L X-SFR and L X-M * relations found among highly inclined disk galaxies in the field, but appear to be systematically lower than those of a comparison sample of simulated star-forming galaxies in clusters identified from the Illustris-TNG100 simulation. The apparent paucity of hot gas coronae in the sampled Virgo LTGs might be understood as the net outcome of the long-lasting effect of ram pressure stripping exerted by the hot intracluster medium and in-disk star-forming activity acting on shorter timescales. A better understanding of the roles of environmental effects in regulating the hot gas content of cluster galaxies invites sensitive X-ray observations for a large sample of galaxies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number249
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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